From history and headlines (https://www.historyandheadlines.com/308-winchester-the-story-of-a-powerful-cartridge/)
The .308 Winchester is the most popular big-game hunting, short-action cartridge globally. It is no wonder. Hunters use this cartridge to hunt down black bears and gigantic antelopes. The so called short action, with the .308 cartridge coming in with a case 1/2 inch shorter than its parent .30-o6 case, allows for a cartridge of almost identical capability to be used in shorter magazines and allowing shorter bolt throws for more rapid accurate shooting. Additionally, for military purposes, the .308 (or 7.62 by 51 mm in military jargon) weighs less and takes up less room than the preceding .30-06 (7.62 by 63 mm to military types), allowing for greater efficiency.